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Surgical Conditions

  • One of the most common injuries to the knee of dogs is tearing of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL). Several surgical techniques are currently used to correct CCL rupture. The TTA procedure is more commonly performed in dogs with a steep tibial plateau, or angle of the top part of the tibia. Healing from TTA surgery is generally rapid and dogs resume normal activities quickly.

  • The word cruciate means 'to cross over' or 'form a cross'. The cruciate ligaments are two bands of fibrous tissue located in each knee joint. They connect the femur and tibia (the bones above and below the knee joint). The knee joint of the cat is one of the weakest in its body. When severe twisting of the knee joint occurs; the anterior or cranial cruciate ligament most commonly tears or breaks.

  • The cruciate ligaments are two bands of fibrous tissue located within each stifle joint. They join the femur and tibia together so that the knee works as a stable, hinged joint. Acute or traumatic cruciate rupture is caused by a twisting injury to the knee joint. Acute or traumatic cruciate rupture is caused by a twisting injury to the knee joint.

  • Cryosurgery (cryotherapy) is the application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue. The term comes from the Greek "cryo" meaning icy cold and the word surgery meaning literally "hand work". Cryosurgery is used to treat a number of diseases and disorders, especially skin conditions.

  • Cystine bladder stones appear to be the result of a genetic abnormality that prevents a dog from reabsorbing cystine from the kidneys. While bladder stones in general are somewhat common in dogs, cystine bladder stones are rare. Your veterinarian may be able to palpate the stones or may need to perform imaging studies such as a bladder ultrasound or a contrast radiographic study. There are two primary treatment strategies for treating cystine bladder stones in dogs: urohydropropulsion or surgical removal. Dogs that have developed cystine bladder stones in the past will often be fed a therapeutic diet for life. Unfortunately, cystine stones have a high rate of recurrence, despite careful attention to diet and lifestyle.

  • The spinal cord is one of the most important and sensitive organ systems in the body. If it is damaged, the nerve cells do not regenerate but are replaced with fibrous or scar tissue. To protect it from damage, the spinal cord runs through a bony canal within the spine and is surrounded by protective bone everywhere except the junction of the vertebrae. These junctions are filled by rubber-like cushions called intervertebral discs. Degenerative disc disease causes spontaneous degeneration of the outer part of the disc, resulting in sudden disc rupture or herniation.

  • The diaphragm is the muscular partition that separates the abdomen and the chest. Tearing or disruption of this thin muscle is called a diaphragmatic hernia or diaphragmatic rupture. The most common cause of diaphragmatic hernia is blunt force trauma. Clinical signs are dependent on the severity of herniation. There is often respiratory distress, an abnormal heart rhythm, muffled heart and lung sounds, and other signs of systemic shock. The abdomen may feel empty when palpated. Once the patient is stable, the hernia must be corrected surgically.

  • The diaphragm is the muscular partition that separates the abdomen and the chest. Tearing or disruption of this thin muscle is called a diaphragmatic hernia or diaphragmatic rupture. The most common cause of diaphragmatic hernia is blunt force trauma. Clinical signs depend on the severity of herniation. There is often respiratory distress, an abnormal heart rhythm, muffled heart and lung sounds, and other signs of systemic shock. The abdomen may feel empty when palpated. Once the patient is stable, the hernia must be corrected surgically.

  • Common conditions of pet ferrets include diarrhea, intestinal foreign bodies, parasites, heart disease, and various types of tumors. Any variation from normal should be a cause for concern and should be immediately evaluated by your veterinarian.

  • Common conditions of pet rodents include respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal problems, dental problems, and tumors. Signs of respiratory disease in rodents include nasal and/or ocular discharge in mild infections, and wheezing, coughing, and open-mouth breathing in severe infections. Gastrointestinal disease, including diarrhea from various causes and gastrointestinal stasis is common in pet rodents. All rodents have teeth that grow continuously throughout their lives. Occasionally, these teeth grow too long and cut into the gums, causing pain, or prevent the mouth from closing properly, which often makes the pet stop eating. Just as in people, cancer is often seen in pet rodents, especially mammary (breast) tumors in rats and mice. Rodents with signs of respiratory or GI disease or evidence of a tumor should be seen by a veterinarian who can properly diagnose and treat the underlying condition.